Stephen Gardbaum

Stephen Gardbaum

Stephen Yeazell Endowed Chair in Law
B.A. Oxford, 1980
C.P.E. College of Law, London, 1981
M.Sc. Sociology and Politics, University of London, 1985
Ph.D. Political Theory, Columbia, 1989
J.D. Yale, 1990
UCLA Faculty Since 1998


The New Commonwealth Model of Constitutionalism: Theory and Practice. Cambridge University Press (2013). Abstract
La Estructura Comparativa de los Derechos Constitucionales. Collection of articles translated from English by Natalia Bernal Cano, European Research Center of Comparative Law (2012).

Articles and Chapters

The Counter-Playbook: Resisting the Populist Assault on Separation of Powers, 59(1) Columbia Journal of Transnational Law (2020 Forthcoming). Full Text
Comparative Political Process Theory, International Journal of Constitutional Law (forthcoming 2020). Full Text
Uncharismatic Revolutionary Constitutionalism, in Revolutionary Constitutionalism: Law, Legitimacy, Power (edited by Richard Albert, Hart Publishing, 2020). Full Text
Pushing the Boundaries: Judicial Review of Legislative Procedures in South Africa, 9(1) Constitutional Court Review (2019). Full Text
Weak-form review in comparative perspective: A reply, 17 International Journal of Constitutional Law 931 (2019). Full Text
Due Process of Lawmaking Revisited, 21 University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law 1 (2018). Full Text
Populism and Institutional Design: Methods of Selecting Candidates for Chief Executive (with Richard Pildes), 93 New York University Law Review 647 (2018). Full Text
What Makes for More or Less Powerful Constitutional Courts?, 29(1) Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law 1 (2018). Full Text
What is Judicial Supremacy?, in Comparative Constitutional Theory (edited by Gary Jacobsohn & Miguel Scor, Elgar Publishing, 2018). Full Text
Positive and Horizontal Rights: Proportionality's Next Frontier or a Bridge Too Far?, in Proportionality: New Frontiers, New Challenges (edited by Vicki Jackson and Mark Tushnet, Cambridge University Press, 2017). Full Text
Political Parties, Voting Systems, and the Separation of Powers, 65(2) American Journal of Comparative Law 229 (2017). Full Text
Revolutionary Constitutionalism, 15(1) International Journal of Constitutional Law 173 (2017). Full Text
How Do and Should We Compare Constitutional Law?, in Comparing Comparative Law (edited by Samatha Besson, Lukas Heckendon & Samuel Jube, Swiss Institute of Comparative Law, 2016). Full Text
The Indian Constitution and Horizontal Effect, in Oxford Handbook of the Indian Constitution (edited by Sujit Choudhry, Madhav Khosla and Pratap Mehta, Oxford University Press, 2016). Full Text
Comparing Constitutional Bad Faith, 129 Harvard Law Review Forum 158 (2016). Full Text
Decoupling Judicial Review from Judicial Supremacy, in Democratizing Constitutional Law: Perspectives on Legal Theory and the Legitimacy of Constitutionalism (edited by Thomas Bustamante & Gonçaves Fernandez, Springer, 2016).
What's So Weak About "Weak-Form Review"? A Reply to Aileen Kavanagh, 13 International Journal of Constitutional Law 1040 (2015). Full Text
Are Strong Constitutional Courts Always a Good Thing for New Democracies?, 53(2) Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 285 (2015). Full Text
A Comparative Perspective on Reforming the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act, 10(4) Policy Quarterly 33 (2014).
Separation of Powers and the Growth of Judicial Review in Established Democracies (or Why has the Model of Legislative Supremacy Mostly Been Withdrawn from Sale?), 62(3) American Journal of Comparative Law 613 (2014). Full Text
Proportionality and Democratic Constitutionalism, in Proportionality and the Rule of Law: Rights, Justification, Reasoning (edited by Grant Huscroft, Bradley Miller and Grégoire Webber, Cambridge University Press, 2014). Full Text
The Case for the New Commonwealth Model of Constitutionalism, 14 German Law Journal 2229 (2013). Full Text
Private Actors and Constitutional Rights, in Israeli Constitutional Law in the Making (edited by Gideon Sapir, Daphne Barak-Erez and Aharon Barak, Hart Publishing, 2013).
The Place of Constitutional Law in the Legal System, in Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law (edited by Michel Rosenfeld and Andras Sajo, Oxford University Press, 2012). Full Text
The Comparative Structure and Scope of Constitutional Rights, in Research Handbook in Comparative Constitutional Law (edited by Rosalind Dixon and Tom Ginsburg, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011). Full Text
How Successful and Distinctive is the Human Rights Act? An Expatriate Comparatist's Assessment, 74 Modern Law Review 195 (2011).
Reassessing the New Commonwealth Model of Constitutionalism, 8 International Journal of Constitutional Law 167 (2010). Full Text
A Democratic Defense of Constitutional Balancing, 4 Law & Ethics of Human Rights 78 (2010). Full Text
Human Rights and International Constitutionalism, in Ruling the World? Constitutionalism, International Law and Global Government (edited by Jeff Dunoff and Joel Trachtman, Cambridge University Press, 2009). Full Text
The Myth and the Reality of American Constitutional Exceptionalism, 107 Michigan Law Review 391 (2008). Full Text
Human Rights as International Constitutional Rights, 19 European Journal of International Law 749 (2008). Full Text
A Reply to “The Right of Reply”, 76 George Washington Law Review 1065 (2008).
Limiting Constitutional Rights, 54 UCLA Law Review 789-854 (2007). Full Text
State and Comparative Constitutional Law Perspectives on a Possible Post-Roe World, 51 St. Louis University Law Journal 685 (2007). Full Text
The Breadth versus the Depth of Congress’s Commerce Power, in Federal Preemption: States' Powers, National Interests (edited by Richard Epstein and Michael Greve, AEI Press, 2007). Full Text
Where the (State) Action Is, 4 International Journal of Constitutional Law 760-79 (2006). Full Text
Congress’s Power to Preempt the States, 33 Pepperdine Law Review 100-130 (2005). Full Text
The “Horizontal Effect” of Constitutional Rights, 102 Michigan Law Review 388-459 (2003). Full Text
The New Commonwealth Model of Constitutionalism, 49 American Journal of Comparative Law 707-60 (2001). Full Text
Law, Incommensurability, and Expression, 146 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1687-1700 (1998). Full Text
The Federalism Implications of Flores, 39 William & Mary Law Review 665-88 (1998). Full Text
New Deal Constitutionalism and the Unshackling of the States, 64 University of Chicago Law Review 483-566 (1997). Full Text
Liberalism, Autonomy, and Moral Conflict, 48 Stanford Law Review 385-417 (1996). Full Text
Rethinking Constitutional Federalism, 74 Texas Law Review 795-838 (1996). Full Text
The Nature of Preemption, 79 Cornell Law Review 767-815 (1994). Full Text
Broadcasting, Democracy, and the Market, 82 Georgetown Law Journal 373-96 (1993). Full Text
Law, Politics, and the Claims of Community, 90 Michigan Law Review 685-760 (1992). Full Text
Why the Liberal State Can Promote Moral Ideals After All, 104 Harvard Law Review 1350-371 (1991). Full Text


The Single and General New Commonwealth Model: A Response to Ran Hirschl and Sujit Choudhry, 11 International Journal of Constitutional Law 1100 (2013).
Empire Rises, Balkinization symposium on Bruce Ackerman's The Decline and Fall of the American Republic, (October 16, 2010). Full Text
Book Review, 112 Ethics 838-41 (2002). Reviewing Constitutional Revolutions:  Pragmatism and the Role of Judicial Review in American Constitutionalism, by Robert J. Lipkin.
Preemption, in Encyclopedia of the American Constitution 2nd ed. (edited by Leonard W. Levy, Ken Karst, et al., Macmillan, 2000).
Contributor, Recent Developments in U.S. Constitutional Law, Revue française de Droit constitutionnel (1999-present).